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Container Types

Page history last edited by PBworks 14 years, 2 months ago

 

 The Following Page Describes Each Container Type in Detail:

Standard containers

Standard containers
High-cube containers

High-cube containers
Hard-top containers

Hard-top containers
Open-top containers

Open-top Containers
Flatracks

Flatracks
Platforms

Platforms (plats)
Ventilated containers
Ventilated containers
Porthole/Integral Unit

Refrigerated and insulated containers
Bulk containers

Bulk containers
Tank containers

Tank containers
 

 

 

Standard Containers

 

 Standard containers are also known as general purpose containers. They are closed containers, i.e. they are closed on all sides. A distinction may be drawn between the following types of standard container:

Standard containers with doors at one or both end(s)
Standard containers with doors at one or both end(s) and doors over the entire length of one or both sides
Standard containers with doors at one or both end(s) and doors on one or both sides

In addition, the various types of standard container also differ in dimensions and weight, resulting in a wide range of standard containers.

 

Standard containers are mainly used as 20' and 40' containers. Containers with smaller dimensions are very seldom used. Indeed, the trend is towards even longer dimensions, e.g. 45'. The principal components of a standard container are shown in following diagram of a 20' plywood container:

 

 

Figure 1: Components of a 20' plywood container

 

 

1 - Corner casting Eckbeschlag
2 - Forklift pocket Gabelstaplertasche
3 - Bottom cross member Bodenquerträger
4 - Floor Boden
5 - Bottom side rail Bodenlängsträger
6 - Corner post Ecksäule
7 - Top side rail Dachlängsträger
8 - Front top end rail Dachquerträger
9 - Front end wall Stirnwand
10 - Roof bows Dachspriegel
11 - Roof panel Dach
12 - Door header Türobergurt
13 - Hinge Scharnier
14 - Door locking bar Türverschlussstange
15 - Cam Nocke
16 - Cam keeper Nockenhalterung
17 - Door gasket Türdichtung
18 - Door sill Türuntergurt

 

 

Frame and bottom cross members are made of steel profiles, while three different materials are used for the walls:

 

1. Steel sheet, corrugated

 

Characteristics:

low material costs
easy to repair
high tare weight
susceptible to corrosion
difficult to clean owing to corrugated walls

 

2. Aluminum sheet in conjunction with stiffening profiles

 

Characteristics:

 

low tare weight
high material costs
easily deformed, very quickly dented

 

3. Plywood with glass fiber-reinforced plastic coating (plywood + GRP)

 

Characteristics:

 

easy to clean owing to smooth surfaces
easy to repair
strong and resilient, does not dent
moderate material costs
moderate tare weight

 

The cost advantages have led to the predominant use of steel for container walls.

 

The floor is generally made of wood, usually planking or plywood. Although wood is relatively expensive, it has substantial advantages over other materials: it is strong and resilient, does not dent, may be easily replaced during repairs and, when appropriately finished, has an adequate coefficient of friction, which is important for cargo securing.

 

Standard containers may additionally be equipped with certain optional extras:

 

Forklift pockets: these allow handling of empty containers with forklift trucks. Packed containers must not be picked up in this way unless specifically permitted. Forklift pockets are installed only in 20' containers and are arranged parallel to the center of the container in the bottom side rails. 40' containers do not have forklift pockets, since the pockets are relatively close together and such large containers would be difficult to balance. In addition, the forklift truck travel paths are often not wide enough.
Gooseneck tunnel: Many 40' containers have a recess in the floor at the front end which serves to center the containers on so-called gooseneck chassis. These recesses allow the containers to lie lower and therefore to be of taller construction.

 

 

Figure 2: Gooseneck tunnel in standard container. The Figure shows the recess in the floor of the container into which the gooseneck of the chassis is fitted

 

 

Figure 3: Gooseneck tunnel in standard container. As a result of the recess in the floor of the container (right), the latter lies lower than does a container without gooseneck tunnel (left), so allowing the transport of containers up to 9'6" in height.

 

Grappler pockets: In general, containers are handled by top spreaders using the corner fittings or corner castings. However, some containers have grappler pockets for handling by means of grapplers.

 

 

Figure 4: Grappler pockets on standard container: these allow handling of the container using "grapplers"

 

Special fittings are available for transporting special cargoes:

Clothes rails for hanging garments: Special lashing rings attached to the top side rail serve to accommodate clothes rails on which textiles may be transported hanging on clothes-hangers. These are often used in the East Asia import trade. Additional lashing rings are installed on the bottom side rail and the corner posts.
Inlet (bulk bag or liquid bulk bag): Plastic liners may be suspended in standard containers for transporting bulk cargo or nonhazardous liquids.

 

The wooden components of most containers are impregnated against insect infestation, since, when lumber is used, it may, under certain circumstances, be necessary to comply with the quarantine regulations of the country of destination and a phytosanitary certificate may have to be enclosed with the shipping documents. Information may be obtained from the phytosanitary authorities of the countries concerned.

 

Figure 5: Standard 20' x 8' x 8'6" container

 

 

Figure 6: Door side of standard 20' x 8' x 8'6" container

 

 

Figure 7: Standard 40' x 8' x 8'6" container

 

Figure 8: Door side of standard 40' x 8' x 8'6" container

 

Figure 9: Standard 20' x 8' x 8'6" container with side doors [43].

 

Click on the right-hand door to open it or on the left-hand door to open both doors.

 

 

The following are some of the most important details relating to standard container types.

Standard container of steel: 20' long and 8'6" high with corrugated walls and wooden floor
Internal dimensions Door openings Weights Volume

[m³]
Length

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Height

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Height

[mm]
Max. gross wt.

[kg]
Tare weight

[kg]
Max. payload

[kg]
5895 2350 2392 2340 2292 30480 2250 28230 33.2
5895 2350 2385 2338 2292 24000 2250 21750 33.2

 

Standard container of steel: 40' long and 8'6" high with corrugated walls and wooden floor
Internal dimensions Door openings Weights Volume

[m³]
Length

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Height

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Height

[mm]
Max. gross wt.

[kg]
Tare weight

[kg]
Max. payload

[kg]
12029 2350 2392 2340 2292 30480 3780 26700 67.7

 

 

 

 

High-cube Containers

 

High-cube containers are similar in structure to standard containers, but taller. In contrast to standard containers, which have a maximum height of 2591 mm (8'6"), high-cube containers are 2896 mm, or 9'6", tall. High-cube containers are for the most part 40' long, but are sometimes made as 45' containers.

 

A number of lashing rings, capable of bearing loads of at most 1000 kg, are mounted on the front top end rail and bottom cross member and the corner posts.

 

Many 40' containers have a recess in the floor at the front end which serves to center the containers on so-called gooseneck chassis. These recesses allow the containers to lie lower and therefore to be of taller construction.

 

 

 

Figure 3: 40' high-cube container

 

 

 

Figure 4: End of a 40' high-cube container, with arrow pointing to the overheight marking

 

The following are some of the most important details relating to high-cube container types.

High-cube container of steel: 40' long and 9'6" high with corrugated walls and wooden floor
Internal dimensions Door openings Weights Volume

[m³]
Length

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Height

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Height

[mm]
Max. gross wt.

[kg]
Tare weight

[kg]
Max. payload

[kg]
12024 2350 2697 2340 2597 30480 4020 26460 76.3

 

 

 High-cube containers are used for all types general cargo (dry cargo). However, they are particularly suitable for transporting light, voluminous cargoes and overheight cargoes up to a maximum of 2.70 m tall.

 

 

Hard-top Containers

 

 

 

The walls of hard-top containers are generally made of corrugated steel. The floor is made of wood.

 

It has two typical distinguishing structural features. On the one hand, it is equipped with a removable steel roof. In some types, this roof has points for accommodating forklift trucks, allowing the roof to be lifted by forklift truck. The roof weighs approx. 450 kg. In addition, the door header may be swivelled out.

 

These two structural features greatly simplify the process of packing and unpacking the container. In particular, it is very easy to pack and unpack the container from above or through the doors by crane or crab when the roof is open and the door header is swivelled out.

 

In the case of transport of an overheight cargo, the container roof may be left open and fastened directly to a side wall on the inside of the container. To do this, the roof only needs approx. 13 cm (5 1/8") of space.

 

Lashing rings, to which the cargo may be secured, are installed in the upper and lower side rails, the corner posts and the middle of the side walls. The lashing rings on the side rails and corner posts may take loads of up to 2000 kg. The lashing rings in the middle of the side walls may take loads of up to 500 kg, provided that the roof is closed.

 

Usual hard-top container dimensions are 20' and 40'.

 

 

 

 

Figure 2: Hard-top container, fully closed

 

The following are some of the most important details relating to hard-top containers.

Hard-top container of steel: 20' long and 8'6" high with corrugated walls and wooden floor
Internal dimensions Door Weights Volume

[m³]
Length

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Height (middle)

[mm]
Height (side)

[mm]
Max. width

[mm]
Max. gross wt.

[kg]
Tare weight

[kg]
Max. payload

[kg]
5886 2342 2388 2313 2336 30480 2700 27780 32.8
5886 2342 2375 2330 2336 30480 2590 27890 32.8

 

Hard-top container of steel: 40' long and 8'6" high with corrugated walls and wooden floor
Internal dimensions Door Weights Volume

[m³]
Length

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Height (middle)

[mm]
Height (side)

[mm]
Max. width

[mm]
Max. gross wt.

[kg]
Tare weight

[kg]
Max. payload

[kg]
12020 2342 2388 2313 2336 30480 4700 25780 67.2
12020 2345 2380 2300 2334 30480 4700 25780 65.3

 

High-cube hard-top container of steel: 40' long and 9'6" high with corrugated walls and wooden floor
Internal dimensions Door Weights Volume

[m³]
Length

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Height (middle)

[mm]
Height (side)

[mm]
Max. width

[mm]
Max. gross wt.

[kg]
Tare weight

[kg]
Max. payload

[kg]
12020 2342 2693 2618 2336 30480 4900 25580 75.8
12020 2342 2693 2618 2336 32500 5200 27300 76.0

 

 

The meaning of the individual letters is clear from the following Figures:

 

Figure 3: Door openings

 

 

Figure 4: Roof openings

 

20' hard-top container
Roof openings Door openings Reduced widths when roof is carried inside
Length Width Width Width Width Height Height Internal
width

[mm]
Roof
opening
width

[mm]
Door
opening
width

[mm]
B

[mm]
C

[mm]
F

[mm]
G

[mm]
H

[mm]
I

[mm]
K

[mm]
5590 2208 2336 1896 2208 2276 2220 2209 2142 2206
5590 2208 2336 1896 2208 2292 2220 2209 2142 2206
5590 2208 2336 1896 2208 2280 2231 2215 2148 2212

 

40' hard-top container
Roof openings Door openings Reduced widths when roof is carried inside
Length Width Width Width Width Height Height Internal
width

[mm]
Roof
opening
width

[mm]
Door
opening
width

[mm]
B

[mm]
C

[mm]
F

[mm]
G

[mm]
H

[mm]
I

[mm]
K

[mm]
11724 2208 2336 1896 2208 2292 2220 2209 2142 2206
11724 2208 2336 1896 2208 2276 2220 2209 2142 2206
11724 2208 2334 1882 2208 2290 2125 2205 2102 1996

 

40' high-cube hard-top container
Roof openings Door openings Reduced widths when roof is carried inside
Length Width Width Width Width Height Height Internal
width

[mm]
Roof
opening
width

[mm]
Door
opening
width

[mm]
B

[mm]
C

[mm]
F

[mm]
G

[mm]
H

[mm]
I

[mm]
K

[mm]
11724 2208 2336 1896 2208 2597 2525 2230 2163 2227

 

 

Hard-top containers are used for all types general cargo (dry cargo). Their principal uses are as follows:

heavy cargo
tall cargo
loading from above or through the doors by crane or crab

 

Open-top Containers

 

 

The walls of open-top containers are generally made of corrugated steel. The floor is made of wood.

 

It has the following typical distinguishing structural features. The roof consists of removable bows and a removable tarpaulin. The door header may be swivelled out.

 

These two structural features greatly simplify the process of packing and unpacking the container. In particular, it is very easy to pack and unpack the container from above or through the doors by crane or crab when the roof is open and the door header is swivelled out.

 

It should be noted, however, that the purpose of the roof bows of an open-top container is not solely to support the tarpaulin but also to contribute to container stability. Flatracks are therefore more suitable for overheight cargoes.

 

Lashing rings, to which the cargo may be secured, are installed in the upper and lower side rails and the corner posts. The lashing rings may take loads of up to 1,000 kg.

 

Usual open-top container dimensions are 20' and 40'.

 

 

Figure 1: Open-top container, fully open

 

The following are some of the most important details relating to open-top container types.

Open-top container of steel: 20' long and 8'6" high with corrugated walls, removable tarpaulin and wooden floor
Internal dimensions Weights Volume

[m³]
Length

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Height (middle)

[mm]
Height (side)

[mm]
Max. gross wt.

[kg]
Tare weight

[kg]
Max. payload

[kg]
5888 2345 2365 2315 30480 2250 28230 32.0
5897 2350 2377 2347 30480 2350 28130 32.5

 

Open-top container of steel: 40' long and 8'6" high with corrugated walls, removable tarpaulin and wooden floor
Internal dimensions Weights Volume

[m³]
Length

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Height (middle)

[mm]
Height (side)

[mm]
Max. gross wt.

[kg]
Tare weight

[kg]
Max. payload

[kg]
12029 2342 2376 2326 30480 3810 26670 65.5
12022 2345 2365 2315 30480 3740 26740 65.3
12030 2350 2377 2347 30480 3850 26630 66.4

 

 

 

Open-top containers are used for all types of general cargo (dry cargo). Their principal uses are as follows:

packing and unpacking from above or through the doors by crane or crab
tall cargo

 

 

Flatracks

 

 

Flatracks consist of a floor structure with a high loading capacity composed of a steel frame and a softwood floor and two end walls, which may either be fixed or collapsible. The end walls are stable enough to allow cargo securing means to be attached and several flatracks to be stacked on top of one another. Flatracks are available in 20' and 40' sizes.

 

A number of lashing rings, to which the cargo may be secured, are installed in the side rails, the corner posts and the floor. The lashing rings may take loads of up to 2000 kg in the case of 20' flatracks or up to 4000 kg in the case of 40' flatracks.

 

Some types of 20' flatracks have forklift pockets.

 

40' flatracks have gooseneck tunnels at each end. In addition, they are sometimes equipped with lashing winches with 2 metric ton lashing belts.

 

For transport of certain cargoes, flatracks may be provided with stanchions.

 

Figure 2: 40' flatrack: floor structure with high loading capacity and two fixed, likewise very stable end walls.

 

 

The following are some of the most important details relating to flatracks.

Flatrack: steel frame with fixed end walls and softwood floor, 20' long and 8'6" high
Internal dimensions Weights
Floor length

[mm]
Length between corner posts

[mm]
Floor width

[mm]
Width between stanchions

[mm]
Height

[mm]
Height
of
floor

[mm]
Max. gross wt.

[kg]
Tare
weight

[kg]
Max. payload

[kg]
5980 5698 2230 2245 2255 336 24000 2500 21500
5962 5672 2242 2242 2261 330 30000 2200 27800

 

Flatrack: steel frame with collapsible end walls and softwood floor, 20' long and 8'6" high
Internal dimensions Weights
Floor length

[mm]
Length between corner posts

[mm]
Floor width

[mm]
Width between stanchions

[mm]
Height

[mm]
Height
of
floor

[mm]
Max. gross wt.

[kg]
Tare
weight

[kg]
Max. payload

[kg]
5950 5675 2428 2213 2270 316 33000 2600 30150

 

Flatrack/Platform: steel frame with flushfolding end walls and softwood floor, 20' long and 8'6" high
Internal dimensions Weights
Floor length

[mm]
Length between corner posts

[mm]
Floor width

[mm]
Width between stanchions

[mm]
Height

[mm]
Height
of
floor

[mm]
Max. gross wt.

[kg]
Tare
weight

[kg]
Max. payload

[kg]
6038 5638 2208 2438 2235 370 30480 2520 27960
6038 5612 2210 2438 2213 370 34000 2740 31260

 

Flatrack: steel frame with fixed end walls and softwood floor, 40' long and 8'6" high
Internal dimensions Weights
Floor length

[mm]
Length between corner posts

[mm]
Floor width

[mm]
Width between stanchions

[mm]
Height

[mm]
Height
of
floor

[mm]
Max. gross wt.

[kg]
Tare weight

[kg]
Max. payload

[kg]
12010 11832 2228 2228 1981 610 45000 4200 40800
12086 11826 2224 2224 1981 610 45000 4200 40800
12010 11826 2244 2204 1981 610 45000 4200 40800

 

High-cube flatrack: steel frame with collapsible flushfolding end walls, 40' long and 9'6" high; can be converted to a platform
Internal dimensions Weights
Floor length

[mm]
Length between corner posts

[mm]
Floor width

[mm]
Width between stanchions

[mm]
Height

[mm]
Height
of
floor

[mm]
Maximum
weight

[kg]
Tare
weight

[kg]
Max. payload

[kg]
12060 11660 2365 2200 2245 648 45000 5700 39300
12060 11660 2365 2200 2245 648 45000 5950 39050

 

The maximum payload may be used only if the load is distributed evenly over the floor structure. However, if the weight of the cargo is applied to only a small proportion of the floor, it must be distributed and the manufacturer of the flatracks may have to be consulted on safety issues.

 

Flatracks are mainly used to transport heavy-lifts and overheight or overwidth cargoes.

 

 Platforms (Plats)

 

 

Platforms consist solely of a floor structure with extremely high loading capacity; they have no side or end walls. This high loading capacity makes it possible to concentrate heavy weights on small areas. A platform consists of a steel frame and a wooden floor structure.

 

Platforms are available in 20' and 40' sizes. 40' platforms have a gooseneck tunnel at each end.

 

Lashing rings, to which the cargo may be secured, are installed in the side rails. The lashing rings may take loads of up to 3.000 kg.

 

 

Figure 2: 20' platform, converted from a 20' flatrack with folding, removable end walls.

 

Figure 3: 40' platform, converted from a 40' flatrack with folding, removable end walls.

 

The following are some of the most important details relating to 20' and 40' platforms.

Platform: steel frame with softwood floor, 20' long and 1' 1 1/4" high
Dimensions Weights
Length

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Floor height

[mm]
Max. gross wt.

[kg]
Tare weight

[kg]
Max. payload

[kg]
6058 2438 370 30480 2520 27960
6058 2438 370 34000 2740 31260

 

Platform: steel frame with softwood floor, 40' long and 2' high
Dimensions Weights
Length

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Floor height

[mm]
Max. gross wt.

[kg]
Tare weight

[kg]
Max. payload

[kg]
12192 2245 648 45000 5700 39300

 

 

Platforms are used principally for oversized and very heavy cargoes.

 

Ventilated Containers

 

 

Ventilated containers are also known as passive (naturally) ventilated or coffee containers. Ventilation is provided by ventilation openings in the top and bottom side rails. The openings do not let in spray, to prevent depreciation of the cargo by rain or spray, for example.

 

If actively ventilated containers are required, i.e. containers with adjustable ventilation, "porthole" containers may be used, which simultaneously act as insulated or refrigerated containers. For more detailed information, see under Insulated and refrigerated containers.

 

Lashing rings, to which the cargo may be secured, are installed in the upper and lower side rails and the corner posts. The lashing rings may take loads of up to 1,000 kg. The common size for ventilated containers is 20'.

 

 

Figure 2: Ventilated container: ventilation openings in upper side rail

 

 

Figure 3: Ventilated container: internal view of container. The black arrows point to the longitudinal rails in the container provided with ventilation openings

 

 

 

Figure 4: Ventilated container: internal view of container, showing ventilation openings in upper part of container

 

 

Figure 5: Ventilated container: internal view of container, showing ventilation openings at container floor level

 

The following are some of the most important details relating to ventilated containers.

Ventilated container of steel: 20' long and 8'6" high with corrugated walls and wooden floor
Internal dimensions Door openings Weights Volume

[m³]
Length

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Height

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Height

[mm]
Max. gross wt.

[kg]
Tare weight

[kg]
Max. payload

[kg]
5888 2325 2392 2334 2290 30480 2400 28080 33.0
5895 2321 2392 2340 2292 30480 2490 27990 33.0

 

 

 

 

Ventilated containers are used especially for cargoes which have to be ventilated in transit. One of the most significant of such commodities is green coffee beans, hence the name coffee container.

 

Refrigerated and Insulated Containers

 

Refrigerated and insulated containers are mainly available as 20' and 40' containers. A distinction may be drawn between two different systems:

 

1. Integral Unit (Integral Reefer Container, Integrated Unit):

 

This type of refrigerated container has an integral refrigeration unit for controlling the temperature inside the container. The refrigeration unit is arranged in such a way that the external dimensions of the container meet ISO standards and thus fit into the container ship cell guides, for example. The presence of an integral refrigeration unit entails a loss of internal volume and payload.

 

Figure 1: Cell guides in a container ship

 

When being transported by ship, integral units have to be connected to the on-board power supply system. The number of refrigerated containers which may be connected depends on the capacity of the ship's power supply system. If the aforesaid capacity is too low for the refrigerated containers to be transported, "power packs" may be used, which are equipped with relatively large diesel generators and satisfy ISO requirements with regard to the dimensions of a 20' container. When at the terminal, the containers are connected to the terminal's power supply system. For transport by road and rail, most integral unit refrigeration units are operated by a generator set (genset). This may either be a component of the refrigeration unit or connected to the refrigeration unit.

 

 

Figure 2: Refrigerated container (integral unit) being transported by truck: since the container does not have an integral power source for operating the refrigeration unit, a diesel generator has been attached to the unit.

 

 

 

Figure 2: Refrigerated container (integral unit) being transported by truck: since the container does not have an integral power source for operating the refrigeration unit, a diesel generator has been attached to the unit.

 

Air flows through the container from bottom to top. In general, the "warm" air is drawn off from the inside of the container, cooled in the refrigeration unit and then blown back in the container as cold air.

 

 

Figure 4: Air flow in the integral unit: the refrigeration unit blows the cold air into the container at the bottom. It is distributed over the entire container length via the gratings and rises upwards through the cargo. The air is then drawn off from the container's upper return air opening via the air channel left clear beneath the container roof and cooled in the refrigeration unit. If the maximum load height is exceeded, there is not enough space left for the air to circulate properly.

 

To ensure adequate circulation of the cold air, the floor is provided with gratings. Pallets form an additional space between container floor and cargo, so also forming a satisfactory air flow channel. In addition, the side walls of the container are "corrugated", which ensures satisfactory air flow there too.

 

Figure 5: Gratings in the floor of a refrigerated container, which ensure uniform distribution of the refrigerated air.

 

 

Figure 6: Gratings in the floor of a refrigerated container, which ensure uniform distribution of the refrigerated air.

 

 

Figure 7: T-gratings with round holes for circulating air. It is possible to attach load securing equipment. Information on the load capacity of the round holes or the welded studs should be obtained from the manufacturer.

 

In the upper area of the container, adequate space (at least 12 cm) must likewise be provided for air flow. For this purpose, during packing of the container adequate free space must be left above the cargo. The maximum load height is marked on the side walls.

 

Figure 23: The refrigeration unit blows the cold air, possibly mixed with fresh air, into the lower part of the container. It is distributed over the entire container length via the gratings and rises upwards through the cargo through the perforations in the packaging. The air is then drawn off from the container's upper return air opening via the air channel left clear beneath the container roof and cooled in the refrigeration unit. If the maximum load height is exceeded, there is not enough space left for the air to circulate properly. Empty spaces in the vicinity of the container door can be closed with plastic sheeting. This prevents a circulation bypass.

 

more info located @http://www.tis-gdv.de/tis_e/containe/arten/kuehlcon/kuehlcon.htm

 

Figure 24: Integral unit

 

Figure 28: 20' porthole container with attached "clip-on unit" for supplying cold air ashore

 

The following are some of the most important details relating to refrigerated container types.

 

 

Insulated container: 20' long and 8' high, with steel frame, walls of sandwich construction
Internal dimensions Door openings Weights Volume

[m³]
Length

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Max. load height

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Height

[mm]
Gross

[kg]
Tare

[kg]
Net

[kg]
5724 2286 2014 2286 2067 24000 2550 21450 26,4
5770 2260 2110 2260 2090 24000 2900 21100 27,5
5770 2260 2110 2260 2090 27000 2900 24100 27,5

 

Insulated container: 40' long and 8'6" high, with steel frame, walls of sandwich construction
Internal dimensions Door openings Weights Volume

[m³]
Length

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Max. load height

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Height

[mm]
Gross

[kg]
Tare

[kg]
Net

[kg]
11840 2286 2120 2286 2195 30480 3850 26630 60,6
11810 2286 2210 2286 2300 30480 3650 26830 59,8

 

Integral Unit: 20' long and 8'6" high, with steel frame, walls of sandwich construction
Internal dimensions Door openings Weights Volume

[m³]
Footnote
Length

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Height

[mm]
Max. load height

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Height

[mm]
Gross

[kg]
Tare

[kg]
Net

[kg]
5479 2286 2257 2157 2286 2220 30480 3160 27320 28,3 1)
5459 2295 2268 2168 2291 2259 30480 3050 27430 28,4 2)
5448 2290 2264 2164 2286 2260 30480 3060 27420 28,3 2)
5534 2316 2331 2231 2316 2290 30480 3030 27450 29,9 2)
5529 2316 2331 2290 2316 2290 30480 2960 27520 29,9 2)
5535 2284 2270 2224 2290 2264 30480 2942 27538 28,7 2)

1) Not suitable for transporting foodstuffs

2) Suitable for clip-on generators

 

 

Integral Unit: 40' long and 8'6" high, with steel frame, walls of sandwich construction, not suitable for transporting foodstuffs
Internal dimensions Door openings Weights Volume

[m³]
Length

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Height

[mm]
Max. load height

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Height

[mm]
Gross

[kg]
Tare

[kg]
Net

[kg]
11563 2294 2261 2161 2288 2188 34000 4600 29400 60,0

 

Integral Unit: 40' long and 9'6" high, with steel frame, walls of sandwich construction
Internal dimensions Door openings Weights Volume

[m³]
Length

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Height

[mm]
Max. load height

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Height

[mm]
Gross

[kg]
Tare

[kg]
Net

[kg]
11643 2288 2498 2378 2288 2517 30480 4180 26300 66,5
11575 2294 2560 2440 2286 2570 32500 4300 28200 68,0
11568 2290 2509 2389 2290 2473 32480 4240 28240 66,4
11580 2288 2498 2378 2288 2517 30480 4180 26300 66,2
11580 2290 2513 2393 2290 2522 30480 4180 26300 67,0
11580 2286 2528 2408 2286 2545 30480 4000 26480 67,0
11580 2286 2515 2395 2286 2535 30480 4150 26330 67,0
11578 2295 2550 2425 2290 2560 30480 4640 25840 67,8
11585 2290 2525 2405 2290 2490 34000 4190 29810 67,0
11577 2286 2525 2400 2286 2490 34000 4110 28890 66,8
11577 2286 2532 2407 2294 2550 34000 4190 29810 67,0
11583 2286 2532 2412 2294 2550 34000 4120 29880 67,0
11595 2296 2542 2402 2294 2550 34000 4190 29810 67,7
11578 2280 2525 2400 2276 2471 34000 4150 29850 66,8
11578 2280 2525 2400 2276 2471 34000 4240 29760 66,8
11578 2296 2542 2402 2294 2550 34000 4300 29700 66,7

 

 

 

Refrigerated containers are used for goods which need to be transported at a constant temperature above or below freezing point. These goods are divided into chilled goods and frozen goods, depending on the specified transport temperature. They principally include fruit, vegetables, meat and dairy products, such as butter and cheese.

 

High-cube integral units are used in particular for voluminous and light goods (e.g. fruit, flowers).

 

Nowadays, goods requiring refrigeration are mostly transported in integral units, which have a markedly higher market share than porthole containers.

 

Chilled meat is sometimes also transported hanging, for which purpose the ceilings of refrigerated containers are equipped with special hook rails.

 

 

Figure 29: Transport of chilled meat in a container: this Figure shows the hook rails in the container roof. Hanging transport of chilled meat preserves the cargo from bruising and ensures proper circulation of cold air

 

Bulk containers

 

Bulk (or bulk cargo) containers have three loading hatches in the roof, each of a diameter of approx. 455 mm (1 3/4'). The distance between the hatches (center to center) is 1.83 m (6'). On the door side, there are two discharge hatches, which are sometimes equipped with short discharge tubes for guiding the bulk cargo. Alternatively, two unloading hatches may be mounted in the doorways, for emptying the containers.

 

Such containers may also be used for general cargo. Lashing rings are mounted in the top side rails for securing the cargo. Some bulk containers are equipped with forklift pockets, which allow handling by forklift trucks.

 

 

Figure 1: 20' bulk container, showing the three loading hatches in the roof and the two discharge hatches in the doors.

 

The following are some of the most important details relating to bulk containers (source: Hapag-Lloyd, Hamburg [47]).

Internal dimensions Door openings Weights Volume

[m³]
Length

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Height

[mm]
Width

[mm]
Height

[mm]
Max. gross wt.

[kg]
Tare wt.

[kg]
Max. payload

[kg]
5934 2358 2340 2335 2292 24000 2450 21550 32.9
5931 2358 2326 2335 2292 24000 2370 21630 32.9

 

Bulk containers are used in particular for transporting bulk cargo, such as grain, feedstuffs, spices. However, they may also be used for transporting general cargo.

 

Tank containers

 

Tank containers must be at least 80% full, to prevent dangerous surging of the liquids in transit. On the other hand, they must not as a rule be over 95% full, or there will not be sufficient ullage space for thermal expansion. The extent of thermal expansion may be calculated for each cargo on the basis of the following formula:

ΔV = Va · γ · ΔT

 

 

Ve = Va (1 + γ · ΔT)

 

 

ΔV : change in volume
Va : volume at initial temperature a
Ve : final volume at temperature e
γ : coefficient of cubic (thermal) expansion
ΔT : temperature difference in degrees kelvin

 

Tank containers intended for transporting foodstuffs must be labeled "Potable Liquids only".

 

Some hazardous materials must be transported in tank containers with no in- or outlet openings below the surface of the liquid.

 

Tank containers are generally designed for an operating pressure of up to 3 bar (above atmospheric). The test pressure used is 4.5 bar (above atmospheric).

 

If the cargo requires temperature-controlled transport, tank containers can be equipped with insulation or heating. The temperature of the cargo may be precisely controlled using temperature sensors.

 

Figure 1: 20' tank container

 

The following are some of the most important details relating to tank containers.

20' tank container
External dimensions Weights
Length
External dimension to ISO

[mm]
Width
External dimension to ISO

[mm]
Height
External dimension to ISO

[mm]
Max. gross wt.

[kg]
Tare weight

[kg]
Max. payload

[kg]
6058 2438 2438 30480 4190 26290
6058 2438 2591 30480 4190 26290

 

Tank containers are used for liquid cargoes, such as:

Foodstuffs: fruit juices, spirits, sweet oils
Chemicals: hazardous materials, such as fuels, toxic substances, corrosion protection agents

 

 

 

 

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